"Make your life a dream, and a dream, a reality." Antoine de Saint Exupéry
In order to really understand my educational background and career choices made in the
last thirteen years and detailed in the previous pages, this (very long) article adresses the following issues:
- an introduction on the creative industries and globalization
- the definitions of the cultural and creative industries
- the economy of the cultural and creative industries
- the French cultural and creative industries
- the theory of the cultural and creative industries
- a conclusion on the creative industries and digitalization
1/6 - Introduction: the Creative Industries and Globalization
As I have always been fond of arts, culture, media and technology, I decided to specialize in the Creative Industries since high school (also called
the Creative Economy or more traditionally the Cultural Industries, especially in Continental Europe). Both France and Europe have global leaders in
these competitive markets. The cultural and creative industries (CCIs) combine the creation (often by artists or designers), production (often by
companies) and distribution (often by multinationals) of goods and services that are cultural in nature and usually protected by artistic and intellectual property
rights (IPR). The CCIs have an "irreducible core" concerned with "the exchange of finance for rights in intellectual property" (Lash and Urry, 1994). More than any other
industries, the CCIs have been facing two important challenges in the 1990s and 2000s: the emergence of new disruptive information and communication
technologies (ICTs) and globalization.
After my Economics, Management and Strategy studies at the Sorbonne, I decided to study in the country that actively promoted the term and the concept
of the "Creative Industries", the United Kingdom, the Political Economy of Communication and the Socio-economics of the Cultural and
Creative Industries, as well as globalization empowered by media and ICTs: from the telegraph, created by Guillaume Amontons (the 1690 optical telegraph) and Claude Chappe (the 1791 semaphore system), the first telecom
entrepreneur in history who built the world's first national telecommunications network in France, and cinema, invented by Auguste and Louis Lumière (the cinematrograph of 1895), and motion pictures made by filmmakers like Georges Méliès and produced, distributed and marketed by the world's oldest film companies Gaumont (1895) and Pathé (1896),
to digital globalization nowadays. And more precisely at the world's best university for the study
of Media and Globalization, the London School of Economics and Political Science (LSE) – the school of Anthony Giddens, former LSE director, British Emeritus Professor of Sociology and Global
Studies (i.e., the pluridisciplinary study of globalization at all levels), the fifth most-referenced author of books in the humanities around the world (Giddens was ranked second among living
scholars in 2007) and the inventor of the "Third Way" popularized by Tony Blair in the UK, by Bill Clinton in the US and later followed by Matteo Renzi in Italy and by Manuel Valls in France.
Other prominent scholars of Globalization (from the fields of Sociology, Economics, Political Science, International Relations,...), famous all around the world, held academic positions at LSE,
for example: Ulrich Beck, Daniele Archibugi, David Held and Saskia Sassen, Centennial Visiting Professor of Political Economy at the LSE Department of Sociology, who
coined the term "global city".
2/6 - Definitions of the Cultural and Creative Industries
For UNESCO (the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization headquartered in
Paris),"The UK is widely recognised as having played a groundbreaking role in developing these analytical models" of the creative industries since 1998.
The Department for Culture, Media and Sport (DCMS) of the United Kingdom Government defined in 2001 the creative industries as follows: "Those
industries which have their origin in individual creativity, skill and talent and which have a potential for wealth and job creation through the generation and exploitation of intellectual property."
The United Kingdom Prime Minister's Strategy Unit and GLA Economics (the Greater London Authority's economic research unit), among others, have concluded that the creative industries are now even
more important than financial services to the London economy!
"The term cultural industries refers to industries which combine the creation, production and commercialization of creative contents which are intangible and
cultural in nature. The contents are typically protected by copyright and they can take the form of a good or a service. Cultural industries generally include printing, publishing and
multimedia, audiovisual, phonographic and cinematographic productions as well as crafts and design."
"The term creative industries encompasses a broader range of activities which include the cultural industries plus all cultural or
artistic production, whether live or produced as an individual unit. The creative industries are those in which the product or service contains a substantial element of artistic or creative
endeavour and include activities such as architecture and advertising."
As of 2015, the UK makes a clear difference between the Creative
Economy and the Creative Industries (the latter is defined as a subset of the former) and recognizes officially nine sectors being part of the Creative Industries:
- Advertising and marketing
- Design: product, graphic and fashion design
- Film, TV, video, radio and photography
- IT, software and computer services
- Museums, galleries and libraries
- Music, performing and visual arts
For more information about the definition of the CCIs on wikipedia, from an academic point of view:
For more information about the definition of the CCIs on wikipedia, from a business point of view:
3/6 - Economy of the Cultural and Creative Industries
According to the official study conducted for the first time in Europe's history by EY (ex-Ernst & Young) and published in December 2014, "Creating Growth:
Measuring cultural and creative markets in the EU", the Cultural and Creative Industries represent in Europe:
- € 535.9 billion in turnover i.e. 4.2% of Europe's GDP – € 74.6 billion only in France
- 7.1 million jobs i.e. 3.3% of the EU's working population (third-largest employer, employ over 5 times as many Europeans as the telecommunications industry) – 1.2 million jobs only in
They include (> 2012 turnover in the EU):
- Visual Arts (Design, Fashion*, Photography, Museums,...) > € 127.6 billion
- Publishing* (Books, Newspapers, Magazines,...) > € 107.1 billion
- Advertising* > € 93 billion
- Television* > € 90 billion
- Architecture > € 36.2 billion
- Performing Arts (Concerts*, Festivals,...) > € 31.9 billion
- Music* > € 25.3 billion
- Film > € 17.3 billion
- Video Games (computer games, phone and online gaming,...) > € 16 billion
- Radio* > € 10.4 billion
Also included in the CCIs sometimes:
- Libraries, Electronic Publishing and Softwares*
- Education*, Research and Development
- Cultural Tourism* and Gastronomy
- Sports and Outdoor Activities
*At one point in my life, I have worked in these 10 sectors of the cultural and creative industries
4/6 - The French Cultural and Creative Industries
Along with the French Ministry of Culture and Communication, the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs supports the Cultural and creative
industries in France.
EY was the first to publish a comprehensive economic study on the Cultural and Creative Industries in France in November
2013 in French "1er panorama des industries culturelles et créatives en France. Au coeur
du rayonnement et de la compétitivité de la France" and in English "First overview of
Cultural and Creative Industries. At the heart of France’s Influence and Competitiveness" in partnership with the main professional associations and societies of Culture and Creation in
France under the patronage of the French Government and then again in October 2015 "Création sous tension – 2e panorama de l’économie de la culture et de la création en France".
On the EY's website dedicated to the French CCIs, France Creative, you can find a short executive summary in English on the French Cultural and Creative Industries stating that
"One of France’s centres of excellence, the cultural and creative industries account for 4% of GDP, which puts France second
among the G8 countries just behind the USA. Their development stands for critical soft power with high geostrategic stakes. The new forms of creation and distributions of their goods and services
give the French cultural industries important leverage for growth." and that "France has the largest music publishing company in the world (Universal Music Group), one of the
international leaders in web-based music streaming services (Deezer), the second largest publishing group on the worldwide scene (Hachette), and the third
video game publisher (Ubisoft). France ranks third in the world as cinema producer and second only to the US as exporter; is the third international editor of
animation films. The country has the first European TV broadcaster (TF1), the second most broadcasted musical repertoire in the world just after the Anglo-American repertoire."
The European Cultural and Creative Industries Alliance, ECCIA, is composed of the five national European luxury good
organizations - Circulo Fortuny (Spain), Fondazione Altagamma
(Italy), Meisterkreis (Germany), Walpole (United Kingdom)
and of course, the prestigious Comité Colbert for France with members such as:
- Haute Couture and Fashion brands - Lanvin (1889), Chanel
(1912), Lacoste (1933), Pierre Balmain (1945), Céline (1945), Christian Dior Couture (1947), Chloé (1952), Givenchy (1952),
Yves Saint Laurent (1962),...
- Leather Goods brands - Hermès (1837), Berluti (1895), Louis Vuitton
(1854), Longchamp (1948),...
- Fragrance and Cosmetic brands - Guerlain (1828), Caron (1904), Parfums Chanel (1924), Rochas (1925),
Lancôme/L'Oréal Produits de Luxe (1935), Parfums Christian Dior (1948), Parfums Hermès (1948), Parfums Givenchy (1957), Yves Saint Laurent Parfums (1962),...
- Jewelry and Crystal brands - Baccarat (1764), Breguet (1775), Cartier (1847), Boucheron (1858),
Van Cleef & Arpels (1906),...
- Wine and Spirits brands - Château d'Yquem (1593), Veuve Clicquot Ponsardin (1772), Champagne Bollinger (1829),
Château Cheval Blanc (1832), Champagne Krug (1843), Château Lafite-Rothschild (1855),...
- Gastronomy brands - Dalloyau (1682), Hédiard (1854), Lenôtre (1957), La Maison du Chocolat (1977), Pierre Hermé (1996), Alain Ducasse au Plaza Athénée
(2000), L'Atelier de Joël Robuchon Étoile (2010),...
- Hospitality brands - Le Meurice (1835), Le Ritz (1898), Le Plaza Athénée (1911), Le Bristol (1924), Le George V (1928),...
- Cultural institutions - La Sorbonne (1257), Château de Versailles (1661), Villa Médicis (1666), Opéra National de Paris (1669), Comédie Française (1680), Musée du Louvre (1793),
Les Arts Décoratifs (1882), IRCAM (1976), Musée d'Orsay (1986),...
5/6 - Theory of the Cultural and Creative
The contributions of the scholars and alumni of both the London School of Economics and the University of Paris I Panthéon-Sorbonne to the transdisciplinary field of the cultural and creative industries
(including media sociology, media economics, media law and media management) have been foundational, essential and paramount since the
As early as 1982, Daniel Sabatier created at Paris 1 the world's first
degree in Media Law, Media Economics and Media Management (DESS Communication Audiovisuelle > DESS Droit et Administration de
l'Audiovisuel > Master 2 Droit, Economie et Gestion de l'Audiovisuel). While the first course in Media Management in the UK appeared at the University of Stirling only in 1993.
At LSE, Terhi Rantanen created the world's first degree in Media and Globalization in partnership with other top communication schools:
USC (University of Southern California) in 2000, Fudan University (Shanghai) in 2008 and UCT (University of Cape Town) in 2017.
I have had a passion for media and communications since high school. That is why it was my dream to study at Paris 1 and LSE...
Here is the list of the influential academics of the Cultural and Creative Industries who inspired me the most (informal literature review):
- Marshall McLuhan (University of Toronto), Canadian Professor of English and author of pioneering books in
popular culture, cultural studies, communication theory and media ecology: "The Mechanical Bride: Folklore of Industrial Man" (1951), "The Gutenberg Galaxy: The Making of Typographic
Man" (1962) and "Understanding Media: The Extensions of Man" (1964). McLuhan is known for coining the expressions "the medium is the message", "hot" and "cool" media, the "global village", and for
predicting the World Wide Web almost thirty years before it was invented. McLuhan's pioneering work is viewed as one of the cornerstones of
- Henri Mercillon (Université de Paris I), French Professor Emeritus of Economics,
former director of the Centre d'Economie de l'Information de Paris 1/Sorbonne Center for the Information Economy, author of "Cinéma et Monopoles. Le Cinéma aux Etats-Unis : Etude Economique"
(1952), "Industrie culturelle et littérature économique" (1963), "Economie de l'information"
(1966-1967), "Economie des moyens d’information" (1967), "Monopoles de la connaissance et concurrence des moyens d'informations" (in "La Monnaie et l'économie de notre temps: mélanges en l'honneur du
professeur Émile James", 1974), "Le Secteur commercial de la radio-diffusion d'État française : éléments d'une problématique socio-économique" (in "Mélanges offerts à Henri Guitton : le temps en
économie, les mathématiques et l'économie, recherches pluridisciplinaires", 1977), "Les musées: institutions à but non lucratif dans l'économie marchande" (1977), "Le cinéma : entre l'art et
l'argent" (préface, Pierre-Jean Benghozi, 1989) and editor of "O.R.T.F., l'agonie du monopole? La problématique de la télévision française durant la
décennie soixante-dix" (1973) - the minutes of the historical pluridisciplinary symposium on French Television that Mercillon organized at the Sorbonne on October 10th 1972 gathering
together the most prominent French academics: François Luchaire
(co-founder of the University of Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne), Fernand Terrou (former
director of the French Press Institute of the University of Paris founded in 1937 who took part in the drafting of the Declaration of Press Rights of San
Francisco in 1948 and who supported, with UNESCO, the establishment of the International Association for Studies and Research on Information and Communication in 1957) and the dean
Claude-Albert Colliard (father of the former President of the University of Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne, Jean-Claude Colliard); experienced French politicians: Olivier Giscard d'Estaing (co-founder of INSEAD), Joseph Rovan, Georges Fillioud, Alain Griotteray and André Diligent;
famous French journalists of the press: Jean-François Revel, René Andrieu, Georges Suffert, Pierre Viansson-Ponté and Jean
Diwo; and French top media executives of radio and TV programming and media professionals of radio and TV production: Jean d'Arcy (surprisingly anticipating very accurately the arrival of the Internet, and its future uses,
during a French TV interview in 1969), Jean Frydman, Alain de Sédouy and André Harris. Following this
symposium, the ORTF, French equivalent of the BBC, was dissolved in 1974 and
replaced by TF1, France Télévisions, Radio France, INA, TDF and SFP.
I consider Mercillon as the first scholar of Cultural Economics
in the world. Henri Mercillon was a Professor at the University of Paris in 1967-1970, Paris 1 Professor from 1970, Professor Emeritus from
1992 until his death in 2011. In the 1960s-1970s, he popularized in France the works of McLuhan, Kalistratov, Conant, and of academics from other countries as well, for a truly global approach of the
Economics of Arts, Culture and Communication (artworks,
literature, theatre, museums, opera, music, press, radio, cinema, television).
A disciple of the prominent economist Henri
Guitton (Université de Paris I), Henri Mercillon first gained academic recognition after his trip to the USA and the publication of his thesis on the Economics of Cinema (1952) as a book translated in different languages (1953). He was a friend of Jean Domarchi (a
scholar of Economics, Philosophy and Cinema and film critic) and Jean-Claude Casanova (a famous economist and
former president of the Fondation nationale des sciences politiques) that he both met at the Law Faculty of Dijon where Henri Mercillon started his university career (historically, courses of Economics were taught in Law Faculties in France prior
Moreover, Mercillon also played a leading role in the establishment of
the department of Business Administration and Management at the Sorbonne in 1971. The University of Paris 1 was already a
top university in Economics since its inception (benefiting from the faculty of the former University of Paris in this field) but Mercillon also contributed to the development and prestige of the
Sorbonne in the emerging field of "Sciences de Gestion" (Management Sciences) with his eminent colleagues at Paris 1 Sorbonne: Pierre Lassègue (the father of Management Studies in France, teaching
the first Accounting course at the former University of Paris) but also Marcel Capet, Maurice Flamant, Pierre
Moran, Jean-Pierre Jobard, Jean Parent, Nguyen Huu Chau, Robert Goffin, Jacques Wolff,
then Max Peyrard, Jean-Pierre Helfer, Colette Rolland, Claire Opsomer, later joined by Mercillon's disciple,
co-author and friend, Pierre Grégory (Art, Management, Marketing), Patrice Poncet (Finance), Jacques Rojot (Organization, Negotiation,
HR), Hubert de la Bruslerie (Finance), Alexandre Baetche (Accounting and Marketing), Philippe Raimbourg
(Finance), Jean-Emmanuel Ray (Labor Law, HR), etc. Business Administration was
previously an exclusive teaching of expensive consular or private business schools (INSEAD, HEC, ESSEC, ESCP,...) in France until public universities (with very low tuition fees) created their
own Business Administration departments with not only teaching but also research activities and therefore
delivering doctorates in Management. Thanks to Mercillon, his famous colleagues at the Ecole de Management de la Sorbonne (Sorbonne Management School) and their successors, the University of Paris 1
Panthéon-Sorbonne is nowadays the leading research university in the academic field of Business Administration and Management in France, competing with Paris-Dauphine University (formerly Université Paris IX, created in 1968 as an experiment to imitate Harvard
Business School, with Dauphine professors originally coming from the "Panthéon" Faculty of Law and Economics of the historical University of Paris).
Luc Chatel, politician and former Minister of France, was one of
his students at the Sorbonne. Passionate about arts and museums, Henri Mercillon was also teaching at the Ecole du
Louvre and acting as a jury member of the Ecole Nationale d'Administration
- Françoise Benhamou (Université de Paris I), French Professor of Cultural Economics,
author of "Essai d'analyse économique d'une pratique culturelle: l'achat et la lecture de livres" (1985 doctoral thesis at Paris 1), "L'économie de la culture" (1996), "Les galeries d’art
contemporain en France. Portrait et enjeux face à la mondialisation" (with Dominique Sagot-Duvauroux and Nathalie Moureau, 2001), "L’économie du star system" (2002), "Les dérèglements de
l'exception culturelle : Plaidoyer pour une perspective européenne" (2006), "Droit d'auteur et copyright" (with Joëlle Farchy, 2007), "Économie du patrimoine culturel" (2012),"Le Livre à l'heure
numérique : papier, écrans, vers un nouveau vagabondage" (2014) and "Politique culturelle : fin de partie ou nouvelle saison ?" (2015)
- Dominique Sagot-Duvauroux (Université de Paris I alumnus, Université d'Angers),
French Professor of Cultural Economics, author of "Structure de financement et organisation d'un système, l'exemple du théâtre" (1985 doctoral thesis at Paris 1), "Le Marché de l'art
contemporain en France, prix et stratégies" (with Bernard Rouget and Sylvie Pflieger, 1991) and "Le Marché de l'art contemporain" (with Nathalie Moureau, 2006)
- Enrique Bustamente (Universidad Complutense de Madrid), Spanish Professor
of Information and Communication Sciences, author of "Las industrias culturales en España" (1986)
- Robert G. Picard (University of Oxford, Harvard University, Yale University), American academic expert on Media
Economics, Media Management and Media Regulation, author of "Media Economics: Concepts and Issues" (1989)
- Bruno Frey (University of Basel), Swiss Professor of Economics and Political Economy, author of "Muses and Markets.
Explorations in the Economics of the Arts" (with Walter Pommerehne, 1989)
- Joelle Farchy (Université de Paris I), French Professor of Cultural Economics
and Information and Communication Sciences, author of "Le Cinéma français sous influence: de la concurrence audiovisuelle à la différentiation des produits cinématographiques" (1989 doctoral
thesis at Paris 1), "Le cinéma déchaîné. Mutation d'une industrie" (1992), "Économie des politiques culturelles" (with Dominique Sagot-Duvauroux, 1994), "Internet et le droit d'auteur, la
culture Napster" (2003), "L'industrie du cinéma" (2004), "Les enjeux de la mondialisation culturelle" (with Jean Tardif, 2006) and "Droit d'auteur et copyright" (with Françoise
- Gaëtan Tremblay (UQAM), Canadian Professor of Information and Communication Sciences, who published "Les Industries de
la culture et de la communication au Québec et au Canada" (editor, 1990)
- Mario d'Angelo (formerly Université de Paris IV), French Professor of Creative
Industries and Strategy, Music Business, Culture and Management, author of "La Renaissance du
disque. Les mutations mondiales d'une industrie culturelle" (1990) and "Socio-économie de la musique en France. Diagnostic d'un système vunérable" (1997)
- Pierre Kopp (Université de Paris I), French Professor of Law and Economics,
author of "Télévisions en concurrence" (1990)
- Philippe Bouquillion* (Université de Paris XIII), French Professor of Information and
Communication Sciences, who published the article "Le spectacle vivant : de l'économie
administrée à la marchandisation" (1992), the article "Livre et musique
enregistrée sur Internet : quelques enjeux empiriques et théoriques" (2001), the article "The formation of Cultural and Communication Industry Poles : between financial coups and the integration of industrial production lines" (2005), "Les industries de
la culture et de la communication en mutation" (editor with Combès, 2007), the article "Les industries de la culture face aux
industries de la communication : l'actualité des théories des industries culturelles" (2008), "Les industries de la culture et de la communication. Les stratégies du capitalisme" (2008), "Le Web
collaboratif. Mutations des industries culturelles" (with Jacob
Matthews, 2010), "Diversité et Industries culturelles" (editor with Combès, 2011), "Creative Economy, Creative Industries : des notions à traduire" (editor, 2012) and
the article "Francophone Perspectives on Creative Industries and the Creative Economy"
(2014). Philippe Bouquillion is an eminent researcher at the famous LabSIC (Laboratoire des Sciences de l'Information et de la Communication), Research Center for Information and
Communication Sciences of the University of Paris 13. I consider Bouquillion as the intellectual successor of the most prominent
French scholar of the Cultural and Creative Industries, Bernard Miège.
- Ruth Towse (LSE alumna, former LSE, Bournemouth University, Erasmus University
Rotterdam), British Professor Emerita of Economics of Creative Industries, Cultural Economics and Economics of Copyright, author of "Singers in the
Marketplace: The Economics of the Singing Profession" (with Claus Moser, 1993), "A Handbook of Cultural Economics" (2003), "The Internet and the Mass Media" (with Lucy Küng and Robert G. Picard,
2008), "A Textbook of Cultural Economics" (2010), "Handbook on the Digital Creative Economy" (2013), "Advanced Introduction to Cultural Economics" (2014)
- Scott Lash (LSE alumnus, Goldsmiths), American Professor of Sociology and Cultural Studies,
author of "Economies of Signs and Space" (with John Urry, 1994) and "Global Culture Industry: The
Mediation of Things" (with Celia Lury, 2007)
- David Throsby (LSE alumnus, Macquarie University), Australian Distinguished Professor of
Cultural Economics, author of "The Production and Consumption of the Arts: A View of Cultural Economics" (1994), "Economics and Culture" (2001) and "The Economics of Cultural Policy" (2010)
- Laurent Creton (Université de Paris III), French Professor of Information and Communication Sciences, author
of "Économie du cinéma. Perspectives stratégiques" (1994), "Cinéma et marché" (1997) and "L'économie du cinéma" (2003)
- Nathalie Sonnac (Université de Paris I alumna, Université de Paris II), French Professor of
Information and Communication Sciences, author of "L'économie de la presse" (with Patrick Le Floch, 2000) and
"L'industrie des médias" (with Jean Gabszewicz, 2006)
- Richard Caves (Harvard University), American Professor Emeritus of Economics, author of "Creative
Industries: Contracts Between Art & Commerce" (2000)
- Fabrice Rochelandet (Université de Paris I alumnus, Université
de Paris III), French Professor of Cultural Economics, Digital Media Economics and Regulation of the Digital Economy author of "Propriété intellectuelle
et changement technologique, la mise en oeuvre du droit d'auteur dans les industries culturelles" (2000 doctoral thesis at Paris 1) and "Economie des arts et de la culture" (with François Mairesse, 2015)
- Gilles Le Blanc* (former LSE, Université de Paris I, Mines ParisTech),
French Professor of Industrial Economics, Innovation and Digital Economics (especially the digital distribution of creative content and cultural products
online), author of "Market Efficiency in the Digital Economy: Lessons from the US and European Telecom Industry Dynamics" (2001), "Modem Le Maudit : Economie de la distribution numérique
des contenus" (with Olivier Bomsel and Anne-Gaëlle Geffroy, 2006) and "When Internet Meets Entertainment : The Economics of Digital Media Industries" (with Olivier Bomsel and Anne-Gaëlle
Geffroy, 2006). Le Blanc was teaching in the Master "Stratégies industrielles et politiques publiques de défense" (University of
Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne and French Ministry of Defense) and was also the director of CERNA, the famous Research Center of Industrial Economics of the engineering school Ecole des Mines de
Paris (the school of Maurice Allais, one of the only three French economists to have ever received the Nobel Prize in
Economics, and of two prominent scholars of the sociology of science, technology and society (STS), Bruno
Latour and Michel Callon who developed the famous actor-network theory (ANT) at the Centre de Sociologie
de l'Innovation (CSI) of the Ecole des Mines de Paris).
*I had the chance to interview Gilles Le Blanc (†) and Philippe Bouquillion in 2008 for my Master's thesis at LSE.
- Richard Florida (University of Toronto), American Professor of Urban
Studies, author of "The Rise of the Creative Class" (2002)
- John Howkins (University of Lincoln, Shanghai Theatre Academy), British author and speaker on the Creative
Industries, who wrote "The Creative Economy: How People Make Money from Ideas" (2002)
- Philippe Le Guern (formerly Université de Paris I, Université de Nantes), French
Professor of Communication and Culture, and Sociomusicology (the sociology of music), editor of "Les cultes médiatiques. Culture fan et oeuvres cultes" (2002)
and "Stéréo. Sociologie comparée des musiques populaires en France et en Grande-Bretagne" (2008)
- Stuart Cunningham (Queensland University of Technology), Australian Professor of Media and Communications,
author of the article "From cultural to creative industries: Theory, industry, and policy implications"
- David Hesmondhalgh (University of Leeds), British Professor of Media, Music and Culture, author of "The
Cultural Industries" (2002, 2007, 2012)
- Andy Pratt (former LSE, City University London), British Professor of Cultural Economy,
author of the article "Cultural Industries and Cultural Policy" (with
Hesmondhalgh, 2005) and the article "Cultural commodity chains, cultural clusters, or cultural production chains?" (2008)
- Henry Jenkins (University of Southern California), American Provost Professor of Communication, Journalism and Cinematic Arts, author of "Convergence Culture: Where Old and New Media Collide" (2006)
- François Moreau (Université de Paris I alumnus, Université de Paris XIII), French Professor
of Economics, author of "L'Industrie du disque" (with Nicolas Curien, 2006)
- Victor Ginsburgh (Université Libre de Bruxelles, Université Catholique de Louvain), Belgian Professor of
Economics, author of "The Handbook of the Economics of Art and Culture" (with David Throsby, 2006)
- Eric Brousseau (formerly Université de Paris I, Université
Paris-Dauphine), French Professor of Economics and Management, author of "Internet and Digital Economics: Principles, Methods and Applications" (with Nicolas Curien, 2007)
- Chris Bilton (University of Warwick), British Professor of Cultural Policy, author of "Management and Creativity: from creative industries to creative management" (2007)
- Ghislain Deslandes (Université de Paris
I alumnus, ESCP Europe), French Professor of Media Management, author of "Le management des médias" (2008)
- Thomas Paris (HEC Paris), French Professor of Creativity and Innovation Management, author of the article "Des industries culturelles aux
industries créatives: un changement de paradigme salutaire ?" (2010) and of "Manager la créativité - Innover en s'inspirant de Pixar, Ducasse, Les ateliers Jean Nouvel, Hermès..." (2010)
- Pierre Moeglin (Université de Paris XIII, Institut Universitaire de France), French Professor
of Information and Communication Sciences, author of the article "La question des industries créatives en France" (with Bernard Miège and Philippe Bouquillion, 2010) and "L'industrialisation des biens symboliques. Les industries
créatives en regard des industries culturelles" (with Bernard Miège and Philippe Bouquillion, 2013)
- Jean-Guy Lacroix (UQAM), Canadian Professor of the Sociology of Culture, Information and
- Yolande Combès (Université de Paris XIII), French Professor
Emerita of Information and Communication Sciences
- Tristan Mattelart (Université de Paris VIII), French Professor of International Communication
- Claude Forest (Université de Paris III), French Professor of the Economics of Cinema
- Franck Rebillard (Université de Paris III), French Professor of Information and Communication
- Bruno Latour (LSE, Sciences Po Paris), French philosopher and Professor of
the Sociology of Science, Innovation and Technology
- Leslie Haddon (LSE), British Senior Researcher/Lecturer on
the Consumption, Domestication and Social Shaping of ICTs
- Robin Mansell (LSE), Canadian Professor of New Media and the Internet, LSE Deputy Director and Provost
- Nick Couldry (LSE), British Professor of Media and
Communications, Culture and Power, and Social Theory
- Terhi Rantanen (LSE), Finnish Professor of Globalization, Global Media and Communications
- Bingchun Meng (LSE), Chinese Associate Professor of Political Economy of
Media Industries and of Chinese media in the global era
- Damian Tambini (LSE), British Associate Professor of Media Law, Communications Regulation and Policy
6/6 - Conclusion: the Creative Industries and Digitalization
Obviously one cannot manage an artist, a record label, a radio station, a TV channel or a fashion house like a car manufacturing company.
Managing organizations designing, producing and distributing cultural products and symbolic
goods requires a very particular knowledge. Moreover, even though the cultural & creative sectors share some great similarities, each of them also has its own characteristics to
As UNESCO and many British professionals and politicians consider the cultural industries to be a subset
of the creative industries, and also because of the rapidly expanding digital disruption of the creative
economy, the concept of the "Cultural and Creative Industries" has been progressively replaced in the UK by the new popular concept of the
"Creative and Digital Industries". The cities of
London, Sheffield, Manchester, Bolton, Liverpool, Bradford and Leeds, just to name a few, have
local hubs dedicated to the Creative and Digital Industries to encourage the fusion between creativity and digital, to attract
investments and to foster innovation and growth.
Although many people wrongly believe that the digital transition is over, this is actually just the beginning of the digital revolution and the
creative economy will have to adapt to the next innovations disrupting markets, business models, processes, products and services such
as SMACS (social, mobile, analytics, cloud, cybersecurity), virtualization, NFC/RFID, 3D printers, drones, robotics, AI (Artificial
Intelligence), augmented reality, virtual reality, connected objects/smart devices enabled by IoT (the Internet of Things), Semantic Web and Web 3.0.
According to the McKinsey Global Institute (MGI) Industry Digitization Index (which combines dozens of indicators providing a comprehensive picture of where and how companies are building digital assets, expanding
digital usage, and creating a more digital workforce, the first major attempt to measure digital progress and adoption in each sector) first published in December 2015 and in the Harvard Business Review in April 2016, the Information and Communications
Technology (ICT) sector, the Media sector and Professional Services (like Consulting) are the three most digitally advanced ('digitized' or
'digitalized') sectors in the US economy. By the way, I have been working in these three sectors.
Gartner defines 'digitization' as: "the process of changing from analog to digital form." and
'digitalization' as "the use of digital technologies to change a business model and provide new revenue and value-producing opportunities; it is the process of
moving to a digital business."
In addition, the 2015 Digital Business Global Executive Study and Research Project by MIT Sloan Management Review and Deloitte identifies Strategy as the key driver in the digital
arena: "Strategy, not Technology, Drives Digital Transformation". Download the full study in PDF: here.
Based on these concrete paradigm shifts in today's real world and the theoretical framework that I previously drafted here, one
could easily understand why I did not follow standard management studies at a business school or classical science studies at an engineering
school. I rather chose to study International Strategy, International Economics, International Management, International Marketing, Global
Brand Strategy and International Business Law at the Université de Paris I Panthéon-Sorbonne and Global Studies, International Communication, Media Studies, Sociology,
Digital Sociology, the Sociology of the Internet, the Social Shaping of Technology and the Domestication of ICTs at the London School of Economics
and Political Science to gain an essential, critical and deep pluridisciplinary understanding of the cultural and creative industries, digitalization and globalization.